Compounds that offer H+ ions are called acids (Acid: Substances that offer H+ ions in solution with water); Materials that approve H+ ions are called bases (Base: Substances that provide OH- ions in aqueous solution). An acid as well as its non-hydrogenated base are called conjugated acid-base sets. Compounds with acid properties are called acidic compounds, as well as compounds in the kind of bases are called fundamental compounds.
Acids as well as bases have some special properties. Figuring out whether a substance is an acid or a base is actually an easy process. It can be easily identified by preference. If the preference of the material is sour, it is acid, if the compound offers a bitter taste; is the base. If aqueous services of substances are examined, the state of the ions can be seen. If there is an H+ ion in the remedy, the material is acid. The OH- ion is a base. An additional approach is the use of litmus paper. If the litmus paper dipped in the solution gives a red shade, the material is acid. If the paper turns blue, the substance is a base.
General Properties of Acids
- Acids have a sour taste. E.g; citric acid in lemon, lactic acid in yogurt juice.
- Since they are acid, they cause irritation on the skin and cause damage even to marble from hard objects.
- They have the property of conducting electric current in their solution with water.
- They form water and salt by neutralizing reaction with bases.
- They change the color of the indicators. (Substances that change color depending on whether the environment is acidic or basic are called indicators)
- They produce CO2 gas by acting on carbonated compounds.
General Properties of Bases
- Their taste is bitter.
- It has a slippery feature that can be felt on the skin. E.g; Soap, sodium bicarbonate.
- Strong bases are caustic and irritating.
- Bases also conduct electricity in their solution with water.
- They form water and salt by neutralizing reaction with acids.
- Generally, they do not affect metals.
Benefits and Harms of Acids and Bases for Industry
- Before utilizing acids as well as bases, treatment needs to be taken in their storage and also transportation procedures. It must be saved in appropriate conditions and in ideal containers.
- Because it is recognized that acids break down healthy proteins as well as bases oil by hydrolysis, they need to never be touched with bare hands, and plastic gloves ought to be worn.
- Most bases as well as acids are odorous compounds. When we pick up the odor of a material, allow us understand that the olfactory cells in our nose have chemically interacted with that substance. Odor happens in the aeriform state of the material. This can be harmful to wellness.
- Operating atmosphere must be well ventilated when working with acids and also bases. Job needs to be done in environments with fume hoods.
- Acids as well as bases can harm our eyes. It can also trigger blindness. Therefore, glasses have to be utilized. If acid or base is sprinkled right into the eyes or on a component of our hands, such as our hands, we need to promptly grumble with a lot of water.
- Acids as well as bases can damage clothes, so a laboratory Coat should be put on.
- Acids as well as bases need to be saved in market, suitable storage containers ought to be utilized, acids can rust metals, bases can melt plastics.
- Acids can be saved in glass containers. (except HF).
- Containers in which acids and bases are kept need to not obtain dampness.
When working with acids and also bases, interest should be paid to their concentration.
- The security cautions on the packaging of the containers where acids as well as bases are saved must be observed.
Environmental Damages of Acids and Bases
- Some compounds (such as NaOH and NH3) made use of in market trigger the death of fish and various other living things if they combine with river waters.
- In industry, gases such as carbon dioxide and also SO3, which are created from the flue gases of manufacturing facilities, mix with the air. These incorporate with water vapor airborne to develop acid rainfall. Acid rains not just damage plants yet likewise cause changes in pH worth in water and dirt.
- SO2 as well as SO3 gases are formed when oil and coal having a lot of sulfur (S) are burned. These gases incorporate with water to create H2SO4.
SO3( g) + H2O( s) → H2SO4( s).
- When acid rains descend to the earth, they can alter the chemical structure of whatever they enter into call with, consisting of bacteria. In this instance, it triggers significant changes in the ecological community. For example, they transform the food web.
Environmental Damages of Acids and Bases
- Some materials (such as NaOH as well as NH3) made use of in market create the fatality of fish and also various other living things if they mix with river waters.
- In sector, gases such as CO2 as well as SO3, which are created from the flue gases of factories, blend with the air. These combine with water vapor in the air to develop acid rain. Acid rainfalls not only damages plants but additionally create modifications in pH worth in water as well as dirt.
- SO2 and SO3 gases are created when oil and coal including a lot of sulfur (S) are burned. These gases incorporate with water to develop H2SO4.
SO3( g) + WATER( s) → H2SO4( s).
- When acid rains come down to the planet, they can alter the chemical framework of every little thing they come into call with, including microbes. In this situation, it triggers substantial adjustments in the ecological community. For instance, they transform the food cycle.
Health Benefits and Harms of Acids and Bases
- Human body; It consists of many systems such as the digestive system, respiratory system, excretory system, circulatory system. Different chemical reactions take place in each of these systems.
- In the digestive system, the nutrients taken from the outside must come to such a size (atom, ion, molecule) that they can be broken down and mixed with the blood.
→ Uses acids in the stomach to break down proteins.
→ Sodium hydroxide secreted from the gallbladder for the breakdown of carbohydrates.
→ Digestion of fats takes place in the intestines with many bases.
- Some acidic or basic materials taken from outside are beneficial for human health. Mineral waters with dissolved CO2 gas or weakly acidic beverages relax the gallbladder.
- Not every acid or base may be beneficial for human health.
→ HCl acid secreted prematurely or excessively in the stomach may damage the stomach walls.
→ In such cases, the person is given Mg(OH)2 solution to drink.
* The decrease in blood pH due to acidic substances is called ACIDOSIS.
* The increase in the pH value in the blood due to substances with basic properties is called ALKALİDOSE.
→ If we take too much acidic foods, the fats are thrown out without being digested, as the NaOH produced from the gallbladder will be used to neutralize them.
→ If we consume high pH (basic) foods, the stomach acid (HCI) will be neutralized with them, so the proteins are thrown out without being digested.
Precautions to be Taken When Working with Acids and Bases
- Cleaning materials should never be mixed with each other when cleaning at home.
- If the spirit of salt is mixed with bleach, Cl2 gas, which has toxic properties, is formed.
2HCI + NaClO → NaCl + Cl2 + H2O
- If bleach and NH3 cleaning materials are mixed, toxic gases such as chloramine (NH2Cl) and hydrazine N2H4 are formed.
- If NH3 materials are mixed with salt spirit, NH4Cl is formed.
HCl + NH3 → NH4Cl (NH4Cl is carcinogenic)
- Excessively used cleaning materials at home can corrode the waste water installation and the cleaned materials.
- When working with acids and bases, it should be worked in fume hoods. If there is no fume hood, ventilation should be done well.
- Acid-base wastes cause serious environmental problems by mixing their excess with drinking water and agricultural lands. For this reason, wastes should be stored under appropriate conditions.
- Acids and bases can damage metal parts. Therefore, when working with them, attention should be paid to their concentration.