What is Erosion? Causes, Consequences, Ways of Prevention

Erosion; It is the disintegration of the top layer of the dirt because of natural occasions such as rivers and solid winds. Erosion, which is an exceptionally harmful issue, is triggered by aspects such as uncontrolled urbanization, deforestation for farming locations, overgrazing as well as hefty rain.

Erosion, which adversely affects the all-natural life of humans, plants and pets, firstly develops adjustments on the soil as well as water equilibrium. These changes influence the nutrition as well as negotiation system and also minimize the living requirements with product as well as ethical losses.

Erosion, which causes soil and also land loss, additionally triggers water loss by causing desertification. Lowering the water storage rate of the dirt indicates that the yield is lessened. Erosion, which triggers the loss of plant life on the dirt, creates disasters such as floods and avalanches.

These disasters, happening together, create the devastation of plants. Actually, climate adjustment, which impacts people one of the most, takes place in this process. In the future, climate modification brings with it migration as well as financial troubles.

What is erosion?

So called external forces of the soil; Erosion, which is called drifting by flood waters, streams or deposits, can also be briefly defined as the erosion of the soil. It is a kind of situation where the earth’s surface is transported and eroded by external forces.

In the simplest explanation, the movement of the soil by causing damage, especially by natural external factors such as wind and water, is called erosion. This event, which occurs in the environment, mainly occurs in the form of natural erosion, although its types vary.

Compared to the other type, natural erosion does less damage. Therefore, the occurrence of natural erosion is not a big problem in terms of soil. Erosion, which causes desertification, drought, infertility and soil loss, poses serious problems if it occurs with human factor.

What are the Causes of Erosion?

The type of erosion, which is described as natural erosion, arises due to the movements of the earth. The temperature difference between night and day causes erosion on rocks and soils. This is the most innocent form of erosion, which is defined as soil erosion.

Considering the natural causes of erosion; The aridity of the climate, uneven precipitation and rough terrain attract attention. When we look at the causes of erosion, it is seen that humans are at the root of the biggest disasters.

Destruction of vegetation for agricultural reasons, irregular urbanization and settlement, overgrazing in pastures are the main causes of erosion. Excessive plowing of the land, fallow problem, rapid population growth are also among the human-induced causes. Let’s examine the factors that cause erosion in more detail under the headings:


Under this title; It is included in natural events such as precipitation regime, temperature and wind. Among them, the most affecting landslide is precipitation. The regime of precipitation and how long it lasts, as well as its type, are among the main causes of erosion.

A sudden rise or fall in temperature causes the soil to loosen. The ensuing strong winds or rains cause the top layer to drift. Therefore, afforestation should be done as a precaution. Afforestation is recommended in order to be less affected by erosion, especially in areas with weak vegetation.


This term gives information about the slope, length, shape and surface features of a land. Therefore, the topographic structure of a region is also an important cause of erosion. Soil slides more easily on slopes. Since our country has a mountainous geographical feature, erosion is frequently experienced.

Geological Structure

Soil structure is also included in this article. There is already an inseparable relationship between the geological structure and the soil. Erosion occurs more easily in soils that are loose and very susceptible to decomposition. The geological and soil structure of Turkey are also weak sedimentary soils that are not very resistant to weathering and change.


Greenery, which goes to least as important a reason as rainfall, is also a product that must be stressed. Erosion occurs more on bare lands without plants. Depending upon the kind of plant planted, the rooting range in the soil varies. But no matter, it decreases soil erosion and slip price. The plant selections that secure the dirt the most are as follows; woodlands, fields, meadows, vegetables, grains such as wheat, barley as well as oats, and also hoe plants such as maize and siya.

Destruction of Forests for Different Factors

We witness the damage of hundreds of square meters of forests, specifically in the summertime. The major source of these sad occasions that happen yearly is generally the oversight of people.

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Additionally, reducing trees for industrial use is one more adverse element. Human beings, that damage nature for their own passions without thinking, create the damage of trees by reducing trees, causing the forests to melt as a result of neglect or grazing their pets.

Abuse of Agricultural Lands

Recently, the government has enacted numerous new legislations as well as legislations to avoid farming land from being mistreated. Turkey is a nation with extremely rich and also fertile lands in regards to agriculture. Nonetheless, the misuse of these locations is an additional element that triggers erosion.

Irregular Settlement

One more reason is that people use the land that fulfills our agricultural and financial demands, and also develop negotiations in these areas. Building homes by removing the plant life of the dirt creates erosion to occur even more conveniently.

What are the Erosion Types?

Considering the erosion, it is seen that there are 4 types.

  • Water erosion; It is the most usual type of erosion. This type of erosion, which accompanies the effect of water, particularly at the factors where the plant life cover deteriorates on sloping lands, depends upon the flowing water. Water erosion is the kind of disintegration that provides the heaviest losses both materially as well as morally.
  • Wind erosion; It is one of the most usual erosion after water disintegration. The event of soil motions due to the motions of the wind is called wind disintegration. Wind erosion, which is seen primarily in areas with arid climate, offers an ineffective dirt plan.
  • Avalanche disintegration; It is disintegration that manifests itself with ice as well as glacial impact. It has negative consequences along with dangerous.
  • Gravitational erosion; this type of erosion is the sort of erosion that occurs due to mass activities.

What are the Ways to Prevent Erosion (How to Prevent Erosion)?

Destruction of natural vegetation, overgrazing, fires, rain, wind and plowing the soil in the same direction as the slope are among the causes of erosion. Erosion can be prevented or reduced if the human factored ones are eliminated.

  • The first rule of preventing erosion is afforestation of bare lands. Forests should not be slaughtered, especially with excuses such as clearing fields. Fallow fields should be kept in balance, planting works should be regulated.
  • Pasture grazing should be carried out in a certain order and should never be overdone.
  • In regions with strong winds, measures should be taken to reduce the speed of the wind.
  • Sloping lands should not be over-cultivated and should be terraced. Lands should be plowed perpendicular to the slope.
  • Streams, which are the basis of water erosion, should be rehabilitated.

What are the Consequences (Hazards) of Erosion?

Nature remains in terrific equilibrium. Whatever interrupts this equilibrium, its repercussions will impact the entire environment, huge or tiny. The very same is true for erosion. If the abundant leading layer of the dirt is deteriorated as a result of the reasons stated over;

  • Desertification starts.
  • The high quality of the items expanded in farming declines.
  • The water storage space ability of the dirt decreases.
  • The waters are polluted.
  • Given that the plant life is damaged, calamities such as landslides and avalanches happen even more easily.
  • As agricultural lands become ineffective, migration from country to city starts. This brings with it unexpected urbanization and social issues. We have actually shown to you a detailed post concerning migration and also its reasons prior to.
  • Once more, given that the abundant top layer of the soil is destroyed, serious troubles such as drought occur.

Conclusion : Erosion is an important event that causes the deterioration of the natural balance, the filling of dams and the decrease in the productivity of agricultural lands. However, it can be reduced, albeit partially, thanks to the measures taken.