Urticaria is a skin disease that causes red breakouts, as well as in serious instances, drug treatment is applied.
What is Hives (Urticaria)?
Hives, additionally referred to as urticaria with its clinical name, is a condition that is seen extra frequently in youngsters as well as creates red skin swellings (breakouts) that show up especially on the skin instantly and discolor with pressure. It is observed regularly. A fifth of people experience at the very least one attack of hives (seizure) in their life time. It is mostly a vascular reaction of the body to a certain irritant. Although it is generally seen on the skin, it can be seen in numerous places on the body, including the face, lips, mouth, throat and also ears. The sizes of the spills range from pen idea to plate width, and also they integrate to develop bigger sized areas called plaques.
The hives are scratchy. They can also create burning or stinging. Hives is a condition that goes with attacks (seizures), and also the signs of the condition end in 48 hours at the latest. Then the swelling of the condition vanishes. After a certain time period, the signs and symptoms of the condition begin once more. There are peaceful periods of several days between them. There are 2 kinds: severe (temporary) attack and also persistent (long-term) attack. In intense attack, the duration of attacks lasts less than 6 weeks. A chronic assault lasts longer than 6 weeks.
Hives (Urticaria) Symptoms
Hives give some symptoms when they appear.
These symptoms are as follows:
- Pale red or skin-colored bumps that can appear anywhere on the body
- The size of the swelling changes and changes shape over time
- Swelling that fades as the reaction increases and reappears
- Very severe itching
- Painful swellings of the lips, eyelids and throat (angioedema – advanced form of hives)
- Symptoms that are exacerbated by factors such as heat, exercise, stress
- For chronic hives, symptoms persist for more than six weeks
What are the Root Causes Of Hives (Urticaria)?
In hives, the body reacts to an irritant. As a result, histamine is released from frameworks called pole cells. Generally, histamine is one of the crucial substances of the body’s body immune system. When substances that are hazardous to the body immune system, such as infections, go into the body, they most likely to the entrance location as well as expand the vessels, consequently assisting the blood flow to boost there, thus assisting the defense cells to find to the location as soon as feasible. As an outcome of this situation caused by histamine, structures called red, swollen, scratchy papules happen.
Some kinds are hereditary. So it’s domestic. Familial-type discomfort as well as flu-like signs are observed after exposure to chilly.
There are some substances that can trigger hives.
Some of these are as follows:
- Foods: Some foods can cause urticaria in people who are sensitive to allergenic foods. Peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, eggs, milk, shellfish are among these foods.
- Medications: Some medicines can create urticaria and also angioedema. These consist of penicillin, aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen salt, and blood pressure medications (ACE preventions).
- Ecological factors: Problems that tax the skin such as cold and hot weather condition and water, sunlight, limited apparel, insect bites, workout are ecological variables that can create urticaria.
- Airborne irritants: Plant pollen, dust, etc in the air. It can bring about urticaria accompanied by signs and symptoms in the upper as well as reduced respiratory system tract.
- Medical treatments: Often, infection of the body with variables such as blood transfusion, liver disease and HIV can additionally disclose the signs and symptoms of urticaria.
In more than half of the instances, the main cause of hives can not be located.
Hives (Urticaria) Risk Factors
Some causes and substances are risk factors for hives and cause hives more easily.
Some of these reasons are:
- Have previously had hives or angioedema
- Having had an allergic reaction other than hives
- Having a family history of hives, angioedema
- Having an allergy to certain substances (cat, dog hair, latex allergy )
- Acetylsalicylic acid, penicillin, ibuprofen, codeine, sulfa drugs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors etc. drugs such as
- Infections such as flu, cold , hepatitis B
- Urinary tract infections, throat infections, previous viral upper respiratory tract infections
- intestinal parasites
- Extremely hot and cold weather, weather changes
- high body temperature
- house dust mites
- Nuts, shellfish
- Some foods (nuts, milk, fish, eggs, strawberries, chocolate, etc.)
- Plants such as nettle, poison ivy
- Insect bites and stings
- Chronic diseases such as thyroid, lupus
- exposure to direct sunlight
- doing intense exercise
- Additives in foods
- Insect bites or stings
- Tight clothing (bras, waistbands, tight panties, etc. are usually where the rash starts)
- Contact with allergens
Diagnosis of Hives (Urticaria)
The diagnosis of urticaria varies according to its type.
in acute urticaria
Rashes on the skin are diagnosed by examining them. After a physical examination , the symptoms and the causes that cause the symptoms are understood.
Apart from this, the following information is also questioned:
- Recent activities
- Medications, herbal foods, and supplements taken
- Things to eat and drink
- Areas where swelling appears, how long it takes to fade
- Whether swelling is accompanied by pain
- Whether there is an insect bite
- History of substances that may cause allergies (latex gloves, chemicals, contact with animals)
- Patient’s medical history
- Having urticaria in any family member
In chronic urticaria
If diagnosed urticaria persists for more than 6 weeks, it is chronic urticaria. The causative agent is usually not external and is not due to allergens. Some tests may be ordered to check health status:
- Blood test (to check for anemia)
- Stool sample (for parasites)
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (for immune system problems)
- Thyroid function test (for hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism )
- Liver function tests
Hives (Urticaria) Treatment
There are several ways in which the symptoms of urticaria show up. If the signs and symptoms are light, therapy might not be necessary. Lots of cases of urticaria and also angioedema go away by themselves without the demand for any kind of treatment. Nevertheless, if there is an extreme, rapidly establishing, extremely unpleasant situation of urticaria, the treatments utilized are relaxing. Treatments are advised to stop relentless symptoms.
Among the therapies, one of the most reliable approach is medicine therapies. The primary function of therapy with medicines is to eliminate and get rid of the symptoms caused by urticaria. Treatment is applied to stop extreme irritation, to soothe redness, to prevent swelling and brand-new areas to appear.
Occasionally, special treatments (particular immunotherapy) versus the venom are called for in cases such as bee as well as bug stings.
If Hives (Urticaria) Is Not Treated
If urticaria is not treated, it can cause angioedema or anaphylaxis .
Angioedema: It is a reaction similar to urticarial bumps that affects the deeper layers of the skin. Some symptoms are:
- Scars that occur in minutes or hours
- Swelling and redness, especially around the eyes, cheeks, and lips
- Pain and warmth in the affected areas
Anaphylaxis: A condition that causes severe breathing difficulties, potentially resulting in unconsciousness. It is a medical emergency. It should be intervened immediately. It can be fatal if left untreated.
Apart from these situations, if the following symptoms are observed, urgent intervention should be sought:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Swelling of the lining of the mouth, tongue, lips and throat: It can block the airways, causing respiratory arrest.
- Cold and clammy skin
- rapid heartbeat
- fainting and dizziness
- An unexpected sudden feeling of intense anxiety
What Is Good For Hives (Urticaria)?
The best solution to hives is to try not to get caught.
For this, the following can be done:
- avoiding known allergens and hives triggers
- Washing and changing clothes frequently
Methods that can be applied if hives are caught:
- Applying wet and cold pressure to the affected areas and covering them with cold bandages or dressings can reduce the discomfort.
- For relief of symptoms, it may be helpful to take a bath with cold water and add ground oatmeal with baking soda to the water.
- Wearing large, soft-touch clothing.
- Sleeping in a cool room.
What Isn’t Good For Hives (Urticaria)?
- Wearing tight clothing that is itchy, pressing
- Very hot and very cold weather, rapid weather changes
- Staying in environments with allergens
- Eating foods that can cause hives (nuts, eggs, etc.)
Risk factors and factors that can cause hives should be avoided.
Hives (Urticaria) Medicines
The active ingredients of the drugs used in the treatment of hives are listed below:
- Antihistamines (loratidine, desloratidine): They prevent histamine secretion. It is used for itching, rash, vomiting.
- Histamine (H2 receptor) blockers (cimetidine, ranitidine): It is also used in the treatment of ulcers and reflux .
- Steroids (prednisone): To prevent inflammation. It reduces swelling, itching and redness.
- Antidepressants (zonalon): Used to relieve itching.
- Asthma medications (montelukast, zafirlukast): It is used to expand the respiratory tract.
- Immunosuppressive drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus)
Drug derivatives indicated for treatment are for informational purposes only. No medication should be used without the advice of a doctor.
Hives in Pregnancy (Urticaria)
Urticaria in pregnancy may be pre-existing chronic urticaria. Or pregnancy urticaria that occurs during pregnancy (gestational urticaria) can be seen. Gestational urticaria is rare, but when it occurs, gestational urticaria recurs in every pregnancy. It is not known exactly what causes gestational urticaria, but it is thought to be due to the development of hypersensitivity to hormones.
In the treatment of urticaria in pregnancy, not using systemic drugs in the first trimester (first 3 months) is the most accepted method. In very severe cases that need to be treated, the profit-loss ratio is considered and each case is handled separately. It is not appropriate to approach everyone the same. According to the latest published guidelines, classical urticaria treatment is applied. First choice is antihistamines . It is safe to use during pregnancy, it is known that it does not increase the risk of anomaly in the baby.
Hives (Urticaria) in Children
What causes acute urticaria in children is often unknown. Bacterial and viral infections are thought to be most commonly caused by food and drugs. In chronic urticaria, the most common cause has been shown to be autoreactivity (body defense cells fighting against their own cells). Stress can also trigger urticaria. In acute urticaria, treatment is given to relieve symptoms. Oral antihistamines are used in most cases. Except in severe cases, corticosteroids are not preferred. In the treatment of chronic urticaria, triggering factors and the underlying cause are determined and appropriate treatment is given.
Hives (Urticaria) in Babies
Baby skin is sensitive and more vulnerable to conditions such as eczema and hives. Although it is common in babies, there is usually nothing to worry about. It doesn’t take long, it usually goes away on its own within a day or two. Very rarely it can take weeks or even a few months. In chronic cases, it may disappear and reappear. You should see a doctor if you have chronic symptoms. Hives plaques appear quickly. It can cover the whole body in half an hour. However, there is nothing to worry about. It is easily treatable. Appropriate clothing and non-allergenic skin care products should be used to protect your baby from urticaria.
Which Doctor to Go to for Hives (Urticaria)?
If the hives continue to increase for a few days after the swelling begins to appear, a doctor should be consulted. It is important to go to the doctor to find the cause of urticaria, to treat it at an early stage and to eliminate it. For the diagnosis and treatment of urticaria, one should go to the Dermatology (Skin and Venereal Diseases) department. In addition, since urticaria may be caused by an allergen, it is useful to go to an allergy-immunology specialist. If it is not possible to go to the dermatology department in the sudden onset of urticaria attacks, the emergency services of the hospitals can be visited.