What is Tin? Features, Usage Areas

The tin aspect, which is suitable for use in numerous areas from the chemical industry to the transport industry, and which we are familiar with from some kitchen area products and also chemistry training courses, has an important place amongst the finishing materials. With this attribute, the ore, which offers convenience of usage in numerous materials, has been the focus of attention of lots of drug stores and also has actually been investigated with numerous articles discussed it and also its long background.

Element whose name stems from the Anglo-Saxon word for ‘tin’; It is a crucial business steel with financially valuable substances, isotopes as well as allotropes. By taking part in the manufacture of several substances, some items are simple to make use of, however there are likewise serious injuries. The exploration of ore, which has gets in numerous parts of the globe as well as is a tough handling procedure, dates back to old times.

Metal recognized because the very first ages, BC. It began to be used in Mesopotamia between 3200-2500 BC. Tin has been a source of source of income for numerous craftsmen, who were generally engaged in tinsmithing in backwoods, particularly in ancient times. Although this career has actually lost its worth to a large degree with the establishing modern technology today, it still continues in some areas. The material, which is frequently utilized in the production of some tools since it can be shaped easily, can collect in the body over time and create hefty metal poisoning.

Tin, which is conveniently soaked up by plants and also intimidates human health as long as it is revealed; Despite some negative effects, it is a vital ore that needs to be used due to its various chemical and also physical residential properties. Consequently, different actions should be taken to prevent its unfavorable results. If you want; You can reach what you want to discover the tin, which we quickly discussed in the introduction component of our short article, by reviewing the rest of the write-up we got ready for you.

What is Tin?

The component tin, which is among the weak metals, is an ore that has a silvery-white shade. Its sign is taken from the Latin word “stannum”. It has actually been made use of considering that old times and is associated with various fields, in different areas. Especially; It is frequently made use of in kitchen products because it is quickly shaped.

There are many researches and important short articles on the tin used by lots of drug stores in their researches. In regards to ore top quality, which constitutes 0.001% of the earth’s crust; It is classified as Class A (99.8% Sn), electrolytic tin (99.95-99.98 Sn), hard tin (99.6%) as well as technological tin (99.9% Sn). Solder materials in which tin is utilized are classified in 3 groups as antimony solder (95% Sn + 5% Sb), silver solder (95% Sn + 5% Ag) and soft solder (70% Sn + 30% Pb).

Leaded tin is often called solder. Solder is; It is the general name of lead as well as tin alloys utilized in the process of affixing some metal parts to every various other. One of the most beneficial of the tin alloys that stop corrosion in bronze alloys; Bronze made with copper (consists of 10-15% Sn), bearing metal made with copper and also antimony (Babbit steel) as well as white metal.

Tin likewise enhances the mechanical residential or commercial properties of copper. Tin, which is obtained as a result of the application of some techniques and is non-toxic, produces some negative effects in addition to various advantages it supplies.

What are the Properties of Tin?

In this part of our article, we will share with you the information we have gathered about the physical and chemical properties of tin.

  • İcon; It is “Sn”.
  • In the periodic table; It is in group 4A (IV A).
  • Atomic number (number of protons); is 50.
  • Number of neutrons; is 69.
  • Atomic weight (relative atomic mass); It is 118.6.
  • Density; (white) 7.265 g/cm 3 species.
  • Density of liquid; 6.99 g/cm 3 species.
  • Specific gravity; It is 7.3.
  • Evaporation heat; (white) 296.1 kJ/mol.
  • heat capacity; 27.112 (25 o C) J/(mol.K)
  • electrical resistance; 115 n?.m (at 20 o C)
  • thermal conductivity; 66.8 W/(mK)
  • Thermal expansion; 22.0 (at 25 o C)
  • Speed ​​of sound 2730 m/s (at 20 o C)
  • Mohs hardness; is 1.5.
  • Vickers hardness; ? MPa
  • Brinell hardness; 51 MPa
  • Boiling point; It is 2602 o C.
  • Melting point; It is 231.9 o C.
  • Oxidation step; +2 and +4.
  • Tin (+2) compounds; Tin 2-chloride (SnCl2), Tin 2-bromide, Tin 2-fluoride, Tin chromate, Tin oxide (SnO2), Tin Sulfite and Tin Sulphate.
  • Tin (+4) compounds; It is Tin 2-sulfide, Tin peroxide, Tin chloride, Tin bromide and Tin chromate.
  • Atomic radius; 145 pm
  • covalent radius; 141pm
  • Van der Waals radius; 217 pm
  • Ionization energy; It is 708.6 kJ/mol.
  • electronegativity; It is 1.96.
  • electron configuration; It is 1s 2 2s 2 p 6 3s 2 p 6 d 10 4s 2 p 6 d 10 5s 2 p 2 .
  • Electrons per energy level; It is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4.
  • state of matter; it is solid.
  • Crystal structure; Allotropes (crystals of the same element in different geometric shapes formed by arranging differently in space) are formed by the combination of parts. tin; There are two crystalline allotropes of white tin (beta) and gray tin (alpha) .
  • Gray tin form; It is stable at temperatures of 13.2 0 C. When this temperature rises above 13.2 0 C, it slowly turns into white tin. If the temperature is lowered to 13.2 0 C, it takes the form of gray tin again. To prevent this change; A small amount of bismuth (Bi) or antimony (Sb) should be added to the white tin .
  • White tin form;  tetragonal , gray tin form has cubic crystal structure.
  • Metal that can be formed into wire and sheet is easily shaped, soft and ductile. Recycleable.
  • Tin does not oxidize in contact with air.
  • This non-oxidizing metal melts only when exposed to high temperature. Tin; At temperatures above 100 0 C, halogens (group 7A, non-reactive metals) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S; a colorless poisonous gas with the odor of rotten eggs) act.
  • Most of the alkaline solutions affect the element, which organic acids do not affect.
  • Tin; It does not react directly with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and gas ammonia. Sulfur dioxide affects the tin if it is moist.
  • While it reacts slowly  with phosphorus (P) at room temperature (25 0 C), it easily reacts with bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl) and iodine (I).
  • Nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), gold (Au) and copper (Cu) liquid dissolves well in tin.
  • Oxygen (O) forms an oxide layer on the surface of the tin.
  • It reacts rapidly with sulfuric, chlorosulfuric and pyrosulfuric acids.
  • It reacts slowly with aqueous hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and rapidly with hydrobromic and nitric acids (HNO3).
  • It has a weak effect on diluted solutions such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). However, strong alkalis such as sodium and potassium hydroxide, when diluted and cold, dissolve tin to form +4 valence tin compounds.
  • Oxidizing salts and their solutions, such as potassium peroxysulfate, ferric chloride and sulfate, and stannous chloride, dissolve tin.
  • Tin shows amphoter (element or compounds that carry oxides and hydroxides, acidic and basic characters together). Therefore, it can react with both acids and bases.
  • The most valuable mineral of tin; cassiterite (SnO2) called tin stone. This mineral is black or brown. Other minerals containing tin are; frankite, confieldite, stannite and teallite are complex sulphide. In tin minerals; sulfur (S), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), silver (Ag) and tungsten can be found.
  • Tin has 10 stable, 21 artificial and radioactive isotopes (element with the same atomic number).
Similar:  What is a Polymer? Types, Properties, Usage Areas

What are the Usage Areas of Tin?

In this part of our article; We will examine in detail in which areas and in which forms the tin, which is sold in the form of ingots, bars, pigs and pieces, is used.

  • Approximately 40% of the tin element produced is used in the steel coating.
  • The metal used in boxes, tins and jars was also used in retro tins that were popular in the past years .
  • Tin is used in various objects and ornaments .
  • Tin has a valuable place in the electrical industry.
  • In sectors that are important in transportation, tin is indirectly found in the manufacture of some vehicles. Let’s talk about these areas; automotive, ship and aircraft production.
  • Tin in the automotive industry; It is used in radiator, hood, engine bearings, air and oil filters.
  • A niobium-tin alloy is used in the manufacture of superconducting magnets.
  • Some toothpastes contain stannous fluoride , an active ingredient.
  • Tin is also used in printing (printing letter).
  • The element we know is generally used in kitchen utensils ; It is used in the production of candlestick, mirror, glass, ceramic, perfume , paint, soap, polyurethane and sensitive paper.
  • Tin salts sprayed on glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings.
  • The most important tin salt; As a reducing agent, it is used for trail and silk dyeing.
  • Ceramic and gas sensors contain tin (IV) oxide.
  • Tin; It gives hardness to the alloys it makes with the elements antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper and silver.
  • Tin, which is an important plating material, is used for polishing and plating copper . In addition, tin alloys can be used in the coating of many metals. It increases the solderability by protecting the metal surfaces it covers. This creates a suitable surface area for polishing and painting.
  • The use of the pure (pure) elemental form of tin is very limited.
  • The use of some tin compounds is; It has been banned in many countries due to the dangers it poses to marine life, especially because of deaths in oysters .

Where are the places where the tin is mined?

Tin deposits are optimum; It is located in Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Thailand, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Zaire, Australia, the Autonomous Republic of the Congo and also China. China is the nation with the biggest share with 1.5 million lots of tin reserves. The total tin reserves worldwide are around 5 million lots.

Tin, which is almost never ever generated in Turkey because of labor and also economic reasons; It is located in Niğde and Bursa areas. However, this information does not give any kind of certainty yet. A variety of procedures are needed to acquire tin, which has an annual production of 250 thousand bunches worldwide.

Cassiterite is the mineral that contains the most tin. Component located particularly in alluvial areas; gotten in 3 ways. The component is gotten readily by minimizing the ore with coal in a heater. Tin mining is a costly process as a result of these long and also requiring procedures.

What are the Harms of Tin?

Tin steel is not poisonous, however organic tin compounds can be poisonous. Consequently, it should be utilized with caution. Tin can accumulate in the body and also create hefty metal poisoning. This scenario is life-threatening.

Heavy metals; They get in the body easily through water as well as food, however they do not leave the body so conveniently. When this situation proceeds for a very long time and the essential safety measures are not taken, serious diseases and also deaths take place. Specialists consider this trouble as the primary cause of cancer disease.

Tin, which typically builds up in nutrients; A decline in the number of red cell can trigger liver troubles, weaken the immune system and also cause chromosomal conditions.