What are Infectious Diseases? Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

Enfeksiyon Nedir?

Enfeksiyon kavramı , ortamda bulunan bakterilerin veya farklı bakterilerin farklı bölümlerinin vücutta meydana getirdiği hastalık durumunu  , çıplak gözle de fark edilmese bile ifade etmek için kullanılmaktadır.

İnsan gözünün göremeyeceği kadar küçük olan ve  atmosferimizde yaşayan  minik canlılar,   bireylerde meydana gelen bazı senaryolar sonucunda enfeksiyon gelişmesine neden olabilir . İnsan ortamındaki bu mikropların birçoğu   insanlarda enfeksiyonları tetikleyebilirken, bazı bakteri türleri vücut direncine zarar vermeden  insan derisi veya  bağırsak kanallarında yaşayabilir . Bu tip bakteriler   insan vücudunda çeşitli değerli görevler gösterebilir .

The presence of infection in the body is the whole of the conditions that happen as an outcome of the invasion of some microbes in the tissues and cell groups in our body as well as their proliferation in these tissue frameworks. While doing so that occurs after the infection developed in the patients, the defense systems in the body of the people produce numerous responses versus the emphasis of the infection. Cell groups responsible for immunity of individuals objective to remove the disease factor triggering infection in individuals and try to avoid infection.

What are the Kinds Of Contagious Diseases?

Transmittable conditions are a condition state that occurs as an outcome of the reproduction of numerous types of microorganisms such as infections, germs, parasites, fungi as well as comparable ones by getting in the human body. Contagious diseases create various infective conditions by impacting many organs or cells frameworks according to the kind of bacterium. The appearance of infection is a scenario that may differ from one person to another according to the task of the defense mechanism cells in the body. Types of infectious conditions can be listed as follows;

What are the Types of Transmittable Conditions?

Contagious conditions are a disease state that happens as an outcome of the multiplication of lots of kinds of microbes such as infections, bacteria, bloodsuckers, fungi and comparable ones by getting in the body. Infectious illness cause various infective problems by impacting several body organs or tissue frameworks according to the sort of microorganism. The appearance of infection is a situation that might vary from person to person according to the task of the defense mechanism cells in the body. Types of transmittable diseases can be listed as follows;

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic High Temperature Disease (KKKK): Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a type of transmittable condition that is transmitted by ticks and also occurs as a result of a sort of infection. After infection of the clients, non-specific symptoms such as high temperature, malaise, anorexia nervosa, muscular tissue as well as migraine, nausea as well as vomiting, and also blood infection are observed in the clients. Consequently, the anamnesis provided by the clients to the physicians is really beneficial.

Meningitis: Meningitis is an infective condition that refers to inflammation in the membrane frameworks bordering the brain and spinal cord. Patients with meningitis need immediate medical interest.

Sleeping sickness: Encephalitis is recognized informally as inflammation of the brain. As a result of the observation of acute swelling of the mind in clients, dysfunction in neurological specifications takes place. Sleeping sickness is an infective disease that commonly establishes due to viral infections.

Flu: Influenza disease, described as influenza in the clinical literature, is famously known as an influenza infection. Flu is a sort of infective condition that can take place due to infections and also can impact the respiratory system system. Influenza-induced sinus, throat and also lung involvement are observed in patients.

Common Cold: The common cold is likewise referred to as the acute rhinitis, and it is an infective condition specified as nasopharyngitis in the medical literature. The acute rhinitis is a viral infective disease that creates nose as well as throat infection, described as the upper respiratory tract. The acute rhinitis is amongst the upper respiratory system infections.

Hepatitis: Hepatitis is an inflammatory disease that occurs as a result of any kind of factor in cell teams called hepatocytes in the liver. In addition to the reality that liver infection often occurs with infections, it can also take place as a result of regular alcohol use as well as unrestrained drug consumption. Viral hepatitis is divided right into 5 teams: liver disease a, hepatitis b, hepatitis c, liver disease d and also hepatitis e.

HELP (HIV Infection): This disease, which can be transferred from person to person through blood and also unprotected sexual call due to HIV and also settles in various cells structures in the body, reveals its effect by reducing the body immune system in people.

Transmittable Mononucleosis (EBV): This illness, widely called the kissing condition, is called transmittable mononucleosis in the clinical literary works. Contagious mononucleosis condition, in short, EBV is a kind of infectious disease triggered by the epstein-bar infection.

Cytomegalovirus Infection (CMV Infection): Cytomegalovirus infection is brought on by cytomegalovirus, a type of infection belonging to the herpes team. Along with being a virus that can survive for a very long time in various parts of the patient’s body as a result of transmission to individuals, cytomegalovirus infection is sent from one person to another with numerous body secretions such as pee, sweat, saliva, splits, bust milk and also seminal fluid.

Tetanus: Tetanus is a kind of transmittable disease that influences the nerves of the infected individual groups as well as often creates agonizing contractions in the jaw and also neck muscle teams of the clients. The original representative of tetanus is a bacterial toxin called clostridium tetani. Tetanus illness can also be expressed as stack fever illness amongst the people.

Pneumonia (Pneumonia): Pneumonia condition, or pneumonia illness, is an infective disease that happens as an outcome of the dental filling of air-filled vesicles in the lungs, called lungs, with a swollen fluid. Lung infection can take place as a result of viral, microbial or, much more seldom, fungal infections reaching the lungs in different ways to pneumonia infection.

Dysentery: Dysentery describes the digestive tract inflammation that takes place in the intestines, which is the body organ of the gastrointestinal system. Serious diarrhea can be observed in people with dysentery illness.

Urinary System Tract Infections: Urinary system infections can likewise be called urinary system infections. It is a kind of infection that takes place in any type of location of the urinary system tract or in the kind of kidney infection as well as bladder infection.

Syphilis (Syphilis): Syphilis infection, also known as syphilis, is a systemic disease caused by a microorganism called treponema pallidum. If syphilis people are not treated, severe damages to the mind, nerve system, internal body organs and eye infection might happen.

Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea, commonly called gonorrhea, is an infective disease caused by a kind of bacteria called neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonorrhea is a kind of sexually transmitted condition that can trigger vaginal infection that can be transferred via male semen and also female vaginal liquid during intercourse.

Infective Endocarditis: Infective endocarditis is an infective illness that occurs as an outcome of infection of the endocardial surface, which is the heart surface. Infection may create in clients who create infective endocarditis, commonly due to devices situated on several faces of the heart shutoffs.

Chickenpox (varicella) and also Shingles Infection: Chickenpox, which is called varicella in the medical literature, is a typical infective condition in kids prior to adolescence. Chickenpox is triggered by a virus. The infective problem that this infection causes in the brain as well as spine after being infected with chickenpox and also happens in later ages is called tiles.

Typhoid: Typhoid is a kind of infection caused by the microorganisms Salmonella typhi. As a result of this germs residing in the intestinal tracts or blood stream from the human gastrointestinal system organs, typhoid high temperature occurs in clients. The disease can be sent as an outcome of exposure to the feces of infected people, as well as infection in the blood in the examinations performed.

Brucella: Brucella illness is an infective illness that can be sent to human beings from different pet groups such as lamb, goats, pigs, livestock and pet dogs. Pathogenic germs that create disease in clients can be sent through milk as well as milk items made from contaminated animals, contaminated animal meat, feces or pee.

Jungle Fever Condition (Plasmodium): Malaria is an infective condition in which high temperature strikes are observed in clients brought on by a kind of parasitical microorganism called plasmodium. While this disease is much more typical in exotic climates, it is rarer in temperate environments.

Oriental boil (Leismia): This transmittable illness, which is defined as leishmania in the clinical literary works and also referred to as oriental boil among the people, is sent by female sandfly.

Lyme Disease (Borella): Lyme illness is an infective illness that happens as an outcome of ticks and also similar parasitical organisms adhering to the body and sending infections and also bacteria in them to human beings.

What are the Symptoms of Infectious Diseases?

Infections are the whole of the disorders that occur as a result of the invasion of some microorganisms in tissues and cell groups in the body and their proliferation in these tissue structures. In the process that occurs after the infection that develops in the patients, the defense systems in the body of the patients create various responses against the focus of the infection. Symptoms of infection can be listed as follows;

  • Fever in patients.
  • Tremor seizures can be observed in infected patients.
  • Headache may occur in patients who have an infection. Headache is also a common symptom in sinus infections.
  • Nausea and vomiting may be observed in patients with stomach infection.
  • Sweating may occur in infected patients.
  • Chest pain and abdominal pain may occur in infected patients.
  • Cough may be observed in infected patients.
  • Infected patients may have mood changes such as fatigue and moodiness.
  • Anorexia may occur in patients who have an infection.
  • Back pain and leg pain may occur in infected patients.
  • Erythema migrans (rash) may be observed in infected patients.
  • Neck stiffness may occur in infected patients.
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes may be observed in patients who have had an infection.
  • Joint pain may occur in patients with skeletal system infections such as bone infections.
  • As a result of mouth infection or wound infection in patients, the wound site may be painful and smelly.
  • Neurological problems may occur in infected patients.
  • Irregular heartbeat may occur in patients with infection.
  • Infected patients may experience eye inflammation.
  • Severe fatigue can be observed in infected patients.
  • Abnormal swelling of the skin is a symptom that may occur in patients with skin infections.
  • Insufficient urination and dry mouth can be observed in the presence of infection.
  • Excessive nervousness, drowsiness and difficulty in waking up may be observed in the presence of infection.
  • Difficulty in walking and imbalance can be observed in the presence of infection.
  • Abdominal pain in patients and additional diarrhea or constipation can be observed in the presence of infection.
  • Severe abdominal distension in patients can be observed in the presence of infection.
  • Mental confusion and delirium picture that may occur in patients can be observed in the presence of infection.
  • Night sweats due to some infections are an important symptom in terms of differential diagnosis in infectious diseases.
  • In some patients, the presence of bleeding symptoms such as skin bleeding, gingival bleeding, epistaxis and intestinal bleeding can be observed in the presence of dental infections and other infections.
  • In some patients, speech loss and hearing loss may occur in the presence of infection.
  • The act of avoiding looking at bright light, which can be observed in patients, may occur in the presence of infection.
  • The presence of nuchal rigidity in patients may occur in the presence of infection.
  • In the presence of infection, symptoms such as convulsions may occur in patients.
  • Cold hands and cold feet may occur in the presence of infection.
  • The pale appearance and stained appearance observed in patients may occur in the presence of infection.
  • Excessive tension of the fontanelles and swelling of the fontanelles may occur in the presence of infection.
  • Nasal congestion or a runny nose may occur in some infective diseases.
  • The presence of symptoms such as sneezing in patients may occur in the presence of infection.
  • In the presence of infection, symptoms such as fullness in the face and forehead, and fullness in the ears may occur in the presence of middle ear infection or ear infection.
  • The presence of watery eyes in patients may occur in the presence of infection.
  • Presence of nosocomial infections and soft tissue infections in patients.
  • In the case of the development of tonsil infections, patients may experience sore throat.
  • In the presence of uterine infection, hpv infection, genital area infection or other genital infections, foul-smelling discharge can be observed in patients.
Similar:  What is Pneumonia? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What are the Causes of Infectious Diseases (Risk Factors)?

Microscopic creatures that are too small to be seen by the human eye and that live in our environment can cause the development of infection as a result of some situations that occur in patients. The causes of infection can be listed as follows;

  • Bacteria: Bacteria are microorganisms that can cause infection in any part of the body. These microorganisms can be transmitted to humans through air, water, food or a vector that spreads the disease. Examples of bacterial infections are chlamydia infection and staphylococcal infection. Bacteria can also cause infections such as catheter infection, puerperal infection, and cellulitis infection.
  • Viruses: Viruses are microorganisms that do not normally show any signs of viability in the external environment. Viruses begin to show vitality when they reach any host cell and can cause infection by affecting the cells of the host cell.
  • Fungi (Yeast Infection):  Fungi are a group of opportunistic microorganisms that can cause infection as a result of weakening of body resistance. Candida infection and aspergillosa infection are the most common types of fungi that can infect humans. Foot infections are also frequently encountered in patients as a result of foot fungal infections.
  • Parasites:  Parasitic organisms are a group of organisms that can harm the living thing on which they are located or that can continue their lives by using the living thing they are on. Infections caused by parasites are often risk factors for developing populations.

Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases department can diagnose and treat infectious diseases if symptoms are observed in patients. The physician may refer to the following methods for diagnosis;

  • Anamnesis: Anamnesis is the situation in which the patient expresses his/her complaints. The patient applies to the physician in the presence of symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating, chest pain, abdominal pain, cough and weakness. The physician notes the patient’s symptoms, and then the physician proceeds to the physical examination.
  • Physical Examination: During the  physical examination, the parts where suspected diseases may occur due to the patient’s symptoms are examined. The presence of infected wounds in patients can be detected by physical examination.
  • Laboratory Examinations and Culture Tests: In  laboratory tests, blood and urine tests are taken from the patient. In the laboratory, the patient’s blood cell values, protein and blood sugar levels, as well as kidney function indicators, mineral levels, presence or absence of antibodies for the presence of infection are evaluated. Efforts are made to determine the cause of the disease with other culture tests.
  • Radiological Imaging: In  radiological imaging methods, physicians try to detect the disease by using various imaging devices that use radiation, high-frequency sound waves, or magnetic fields in order to diagnose and treat the disease observed in patients. Physician in radiological imaging;
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR):  This is an imaging method in which an image is created using a magnetic field. It can be used in cases that cannot be fully understood by physical examination and laboratory results or to detect the presence of an additional disease and to make a differential diagnosis.
  • Computed Tomography (CT): Computed tomography  can be used in cases where the physician’s physical examination and laboratory results cannot be fully understood, or to detect the presence of an additional disease and to make a differential diagnosis.
  • Biopsy: A biopsy is the process of taking a piece of tissue for examination under a microscope. Physicians may refer to biopsy at the diagnostic stages.

Infectious Diseases Treatment

The treatment of infectious diseases is shaped as a result of the diagnosis and diagnostic methods applied to the patients. It is possible to eliminate factors such as viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites that cause some infectious diseases in patients and to completely treat the disease.

Medical treatment options are available in the treatment of infectious diseases. Infection and many similar causes or symptoms observed in patients with  medical treatment  are tried to be cured by using oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotics or painkillers  . Apart from this, physicians may ask patients to consume plenty of fluids, balance fluid and electrolyte levels, and apply additional supportive treatments such as erythrocyte suspension and thrombocyte suspension.

Which Doctor to Go to in Infectious Diseases?

As a result of the complaints that may cause infection, the department that takes the anamnesis of the patients, performs the physical examination and treats the disease by applying diagnostic methods is the department of infectious diseases .

In the presence of non-specific symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating, chest pain, abdominal pain, cough and weakness, it is useful to consult a doctor.